In Munich, Germany at International Journal of Arts & Sciences (IJAS) Conference for Education, presenting my research paper, “Recent WTO Accession in Developing Nations and Their Trends in GDP Related to Domestic Manufacturing Outputs”
Fact about the paper: This study finds that in the years immediately after the WTO accession process, an increase in domestic production of manufactured goods occurs, presumably prompted by export demands for these goods in new markets in the developed world. While complaints from the developed world for a more stringent accession process may accelerate as a result, the WTO will continue to have the increased authority as arbitrator for these demands as well as for anti-dumping grievances. As an international institution, this group can and should tout the trade success of new members based on historical trends showing increased domestic output as a result of successful completion of the accession process.
Country Manufacturing Value-Added (% of GDP) 23% (World Bank)
Country’s most Important Industries: aerospace, automobiles, skilled crafts, environmental technologies
Economic Freedom ranking: #17
WWII fact: The Munich agreement was a stipulation in September 1938 allowing Nazi Germany’s annexation/takeover of German-speaking areas of Czechoslovakia in exchange for no further territorial demands (regarded as an act of appeasement), which was later reneged upon by Germany.
Munich is both a cultural hub, as the center of the famed Oktoberfest, and the economic engine/high-tech center of Germany. Munich is home to many multinational industrial operations, and more than 90,000 students attend its Universities. The city touts an advanced public transportation network and world-renowned infrastructure, which is partially credited for its efficient supply chain capabilities.
President Eisenhower observed the German transportation infrastructure as a General in World War II and used it as an inspiration for the Interstate Highway System program of the 1950s.
“In 2012 Munich and its region was ranked at an exceptional second place in the European Regional Economic Growth Index (E-REGI) among nearly 326 competitors from 33 countries in Europe (Colliers International, 2016)”. The City of Munich (2016) touted on its website, “In terms of turnover and the number of employees, automotive engineering is the single most important branch of industry in the Munich Metropolitan Region.”
Germany is the leading country in the EU in automobile production and has been called “the world’s automotive innovation hub” (Germany Trade & Invest, 2016). Bavaria, the Southern region of Germany of which Munich is the largest city, claims 180 Tier 1-4 automobile suppliers. Factories for Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, Opel (GM), Audi, and BMW are located there.
Bavaria boasts “modern solutions for sophisticated requirements in supply chain management of automobile manufacturers” (Invest in Bavaria, 2016). The City of Munich (2016) states that “400 automotive companies employ around 128,500 people” in the city and “The entire value chain is based in this region, including everything from research and development through production to the supply industry.” Munich University offers a bachelor’s degree in Automotive Engineering and Management. Munich is home to a prominent BMW factory. This state-of-the-art facility includes the Press Shop, Body Shop, Paint Shop, Engine Shop, Production of Interior Equipment and Seats, and Assembly.
Munich food: Bavarian cuisine, inspired by the Bavarian dukes of the Wittelsbach family, was originally intended to be for the refined and only for royalty and includes bratwursts, German potatoes, sauerkraut, warm red cabbage salad, veal, and German pretzels. These foods increased in availability over time as common people started making money. Today, these foods are especially popular during the Biergarten season, which starts in May and lasts until Oktoberfest.
The Royal Palace: First constructed in 1385, the Royal Palace is the largest city palace in Germany and is a former home to Bavarian monarchs. It was reconstructed after having been damaged during World War II. Some German cities established commissions to determine how to rebuild after World War II and while some such as Frankfurt chose to rebuild in a modern fashion, Munich chose to study old photographs and rebuild its old town area to replicate the original design, which includes the Royal Palace and other relics of the city’s historic center. The city subsidizes rent for established markets in these areas so that American-style fast-food restaurants do not overtake the current tenants and take away the charm of the historic old town area.
Dachau concentration camp: Dachau was the first concentration camp in Germany and was a model for subsequent camps. It was constructed for initial purposes of holding German and Austrian political dissidents. It eventually took in Soviet prisoners and also served as a concentration camp for over 10,000 Jewish men. More than 4,000 political dissidents were killed there, which was against the Geneva Convention. Post-war, it was used by the Allies to hold SS guards awaiting trial and as a military base until 1960. Its official records totaled 206,206 prisoners.
Rotary International is a global service organization with more than 34,000 clubs worldwide intended to “provide humanitarian services, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and to advance goodwill and peace around the world”.
One can witness panoramic view of Munich from the top of the 290 meter high Olympic Tower at Olympia Park. This area witnessed much economic development after 1966 when the International Olympic Committee awarded the 1972 games to Munich. It is a case study in how sporting events can be a catalyst for both urban development and private economic development. The announcement of the 1972 Olympics in Munich set a precedent that the Super Bowl committee adheres to today, as plans are solicited for gentrification and other urban economic development in advance and economic development initiatives are intended to coincide with that event. The full Olympic-tour provides information related to the ’72 Games, including the infamous Munich massacre in which eleven Israeli Olympians were taken hostage and killed.
The Sirius Industrial Park provides office space and fast transportation links to medium and small organizations in various locations throughout Germany. Modern production and workshop areas are provided, along with low-rent storage areas and technology capabilities and spacious production areas including metal processing. The Munich location is one of many that has been modernized after being a former industrial area. Access to the German Autobahn and other modes of transportation allow the companies efficient logistics and supply chains.
Innsbruck, Austria: Innsbruck is considered a winter sports haven, and has hosted two past Winter Olympics. Its proximity to nearby industrial cities in four countries, facilitated by efficient infrastructure to and from the city, has allowed it to flourish. The city elected the first female mayor in Austria. The Hofburg palace is a former Habsburg Dynasty palace and was utilized by Emperor Maximilian I in the 1400s. Innsbruck is called the “heart of the Alps”.
We had an interesting experience as the bus left Innsbruck, Austria. The bus got stopped as it crossed the German border by German passport control police. We were delayed by about a half hour while these authorities made sure that there were no irregularities.